Null Alleles in Gliadin Coding Loci and Wheat Allergenic Properties
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Wheat gliadin proteins-an important, nutritional component of many food products may also act as allergenic proteins causing various, clinical symptoms of IgE-mediated food allergies. Gliadins are coded by six complex loci on the chromosomes 1A, 1B, 1D, 6A, 6B and 6D of wheat genome. Each of the loci coding from a few to a dozen of polypep-tides may spontaneously mutate to inactive gene variants called null alleles that do not code any proteins at all. The aim of the present work was to find out whether null alleles in some gliadin coding loci may decrease wheat allergenic properties. Six winter wheat genotypes: gliadin deletion lines (GDL) containing null alleles on 1D, 1B and 6B chromo-somes and control lines (CL) containing active gene variants in all gliadin coding loci, were developed using plant breeding methods. Allergenic properties of the six analyzed hybrids were estimated by ELISA using polled sera of five patients allergic to gluten. Estimated immunoreactivity of GDLs was from 6% to 18% lower as compared with CLs. The obtained results evidenced that gliadin null alleles decrease wheat allergenic properties and may be used as parental forms for breeding of hypoallergenic wheat genotypes.
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