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    • Al-Ǧuwaynī’s theory of the imamate in his treatise Ġiyāṯ al-umam 

      Pachniak, Katarzyna (Katedra Arabistyki i Islamistyki, Uniwersytet Warszawski, 2007)
      By the eleventh century the community founded in the seventh century by the Prophet Muḥammad had split into several religious groups. The umma as a single, unified community, had become a political fiction. The Abbasid ...