Literature-Untamed element (A proposal of a typology of the modern Arabic prose)
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On the 30th of August 2006 Naǧīb Maḥfūẓ died-a legend and symbol of modern Arabic literature, so far the only Noble Prize winner (1988) in that field. For decades he had enriched literature with new novels, short stories and dramas. He influenced the artistic prose of his region so much that a famous Egyptian critic Raǧāʾ an-Naqqāš asked if “Naǧīb Maḥfūẓ became an obstacle on the way of development of the Arabic novel?” It seemed that its creators had no other choice but to imitate the master. Thankfully, it was a deceptive notion since the Arabic literature, including the modern prose, has been developing dynamically and energetically since its birth in the 2nd half of the 19th century until today. When Naǧīb Maḥfūẓ departed, which became a symbolic and epochal moment in its development, it is again worth looking at the prosaic output of modern Arabs as a whole. From the perspective of the beginning of the 21st century, with its inheritance of the last two centuries, in the development of the Arabic literature one can notice three main phases, together with their trends and ways of development: the Renaissance-Nahḍa, the period of the origination of new Arabic countries in the 2nd half of the 20th century, and that of the literary output after the year 1967. These stages include the evolution of poetry, prose and drama, and- what is crucial here-became the ground for the formation of the modern prose.