Categories of Beggars according to Al-Bayhaqī’s Kitāb al-maḥāsin wa-al-masāwī
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The work Kitāb al-maḥāsin wa-al-masāwī (The Book of Virtues and Vices) by Ibrāhīm Ibn Muḥammad al-Bayhaqī illustrates the existence of widely developed beggary in the 10th century. There is scarce information about the author’s life. The work is supposed to have been written during the reign of caliph Al-Muqtadir (908-932).