Siyāset-nāme of Niẓām al-Mulk and Naṣīḥāt al-mulūk of Al-Ġazālī: two examples of “mirror for princes”
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The 8th century saw the emergence of a new literary genre: handbooks for princes and governors. By that time the Arab empire had expanded over a vast territory. A competent administration was necessary to govern the state. As Arabs themselves had not had any tradition of administration, a great number of functionaries were of Persian origin. They not only took over high offices in the Arab empire, but also instructed the new personnel. They cre- ated a new variety of the Arabic language - the language of administration. Persians transferred onto the Arabic ground Persian customs and traditions of administration from the Sasanian empire, including the Muslim tradition. They also transferred to the Arab ground the guides, very popular in Iran, containing advice for rulers on how to reign.