Nature-oriented potential resource and melliferous value of forest belts in steppe agro-forest landscapes
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Creation of forest shelterbelts in steppe zone is important because they allow to obtain the highest yields of grains of cereals where the area of the most favorable conditions for growth is formed in comparison with many other soilclimatic regions. Melliferous and pollen production value of lands changes as a result of anthropic landscape conversion from agrarian to forest agrarian. There are a lot of melliferous trees and shrubs in forest belts; some of them have been introduced from the other floristic regions and are well naturalised in the local conditions. Nature-oriented potential resource of forest belts is in carbon deposition and oxygen production by phytomass of the main species. The aim of the research is to evaluate the bioresource potential of forest belts in the conditions of steppe agrarian landscapes. Bioresource potential (Brp) of forests for honey supply in the region was defined according to the distribution of species in the area. Potential honey stock of melliferous lands, represented by forest stands was assigned according to their area, given by the Forestry Department of Rostov region, and the average normative honey productivity of 1 ha of these crops. The number of beehives (N) necessary for honey supply that use ½ of bioresource forest potential was calculated according to the need of a bee family in honey per year. Value of nature-oriented resource of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) stands was defined according to the amount of oxygen produced and carbon deposed. Pure and mixed forest belts with the share of black locust from 60 to 80% (335.0–494.5 kg/ha) in composition with ash (Fraxinus sp.), Norway maple, Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila), apricot and dense structure of honey suckle and Siberian pea tree underbrush have the highest productivity. The total volume of possible honey yield from forest belts of agro-forest landscapes in the studied region is 26,379.8 t. Maximum indices of carbon fixation and oxygen production are observed in the maturing stands of black locust, and the largest honey stock dominate in average age stands and are 3,755,000 t, 10,288,000 t and 25,200 t, respectively. The role of the whole system in the increase of landscape honey productivity and formation of forage conveyor for bees and enthomophages might be much more if the recommended assortment of the best melliferous and pollen bearing species would be more completely used when forest belts are created.
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