Review of the Selected Carbon-Based Materials for Symmetric Supercapacitor Application
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Carbon materials are among the most commonly used components of supercapacitor electrodes. Particularly, active carbons are recognized as cheap, available, and easily tailored materials. However, the carbon family, i.e. carbon products and carbon precursors, consists of many members. In this manuscript some of these materials, including laboratory scale-produced carbon gels, carbon nanotubes and carbonized materials, as well as industrial scale-produced graphites, pitches, coke and coal, were compared. Discussion was preceded by a short history of supercapacitors and review of each type of tested material, from early beginning to state-of-the-art. Morphology and structure of the materials were analyzed (specific surface area, pore volume and interlayer spacing determination), to evaluate their applicability in energy storage. Thermal analysis was used to determine the stability and purity. Finally, electrochemical evaluation using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge–discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was performed. Outcomes of each analytical technique were summarized in different sections.
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