NHC–BIAN–Cu(I)-Catalyzed Friedländer-Type Annulation of 2-Amino-3-(per)fluoroacetylpyridines with Alkynes on Water
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The direct catalytic alkynylation/dehydrative cyclization of 2-amino-3-trifluoroacetyl-pyridines on water was developed for the efficient synthesis of a broad range of fluorinated 1,8-naphthyridines from terminal alkynes. A novel N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand system that combines a π-extended acenaphthylene backbone with sterically bulky pentiptycene pendant groups was successfully utilized in a copper- or silver-mediated cyclization. Computational analysis of the reaction pathway supports our explanation of the different experimental conversions and yields for the set of copper and silver catalysts. The impact of steric hindrance at the metal center and the flexibility of substituents on the imidazole ring of the NHC on catalytic performance are also discussed.
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