Mimikra i polimorfizm u motyla Papilio dardanus
Kalarus, Konrad M.
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Mimicry theory provides a lot of problems involving natural selection, particularly sexual selection and evolutionary routes of mimicry types. In some butterflies there is a mimicry limited to females. The Batesian mimicry and resulting polymorphism limited to females is especially well known in Papilio dardamus butterfly. This polymorphism is controlled by 11 alleles at a single locus. Females mimic resemble to different inedible species of butterflies, for example those from family Danaidae. Moreover, in P. dardanus the andromorphic females are also known, the role of which has not been thoroughly explained. In this review, I summarize hypotheses concerning the evolution of the mimicry- related polymorphism in this butterfly. Recent studies shows that avian predators attack inedible preys more frequently when their population density is higher. This fact does not prove the hypothesis of the frequency-dependent advantage of mimicry. I also describe possible evolutionary routes of the mimicry. Female limited mimicry and monomorphic mimicry have been evolved by independent routes. It also seems that the hypothesis of sexual harassment avoidance does not explain the appearance of andromorphic females in Papilio dardamus.
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