Ruch wędrówkowy ludności i jego zasięg oddziaływania na przykładzie miasta Bydgoszczy i Torunia
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POPULATION MOVEMENT AND ITS INFLUENCE RANGE AFTER EXAMPLES OF BYDGOSZCZ AND TORUŃ SUMMARY The subject of the paper is population movement to and from towns of Bydgoszcz and Toruń, along with appropriate influence range. While studying a "town-region" relation, one can observe distinct feedbacks. On one hand the influence ranges and gravitation of a region to a town depend in great measure on its size, economic potential and attractiveness, while on the other hand, the range of influence and the intensity of its effect depend on transport development, density of settlements, population susceptibility to mobility within a town base as well as the level of its urbanization and industrialization. Migration effects taking shape of balance of internal movements of population are differentiated depending on city size and the distance to the city. However, since the end of 80's everywhere the decrease in migration movements takes place. In general, one can observe two opposing tendencies with reference to large towns (Bydgoszcz, Toruń). On the one hand there exists a quite strong interest in settling these towns (although the influx still fades), while on the other hand the residents of above mentioned settlement units move permanently to outskirts and country areas of neighbouring communes. From the beginning of 90's the increasing migrations from Bydgoszcz to country areas have been noticed. Following surrounding communes admit main wave of mi- grants: Dąbrowa Chełmińska, Dobrcz, Osielsko, Sicienko, Białe Błota, Nowa Wieś Wielka and So1ec Kujawski (see fig. 1 and 2). In the years 1990-1997 the share of immigrants from outside Bydgoszcz Province in the total Bydgoszcz influx amounted to 58,6%, while from the region (former Byd- goszcz Province) 28% and from direct suburban zone (neighbouring communes) 13,4%. However, in the outflow number the 58% of emigrants moved outside Bydgoszcz Pro- vince, 23% emigrated from Bydgoszcz to area of a former Bydgoszcz Province and as much as 19% of total migrants moved to surrounding communes area. Therefore, 13,4% of total migrants number came to Bydgoszcz from neighbouring communes and 19% of total outflow emigrated from the town to suburban area. In the rnigration turnover of Bydgoszcz city the national circulation amounted to 58,1 %, regional one 25,9% and the local as much as 16% (fig. 1,2). In the recent years the similar phenomenon of emigration to neighbouring com- munes is being observed in Toruń, where population more and more frequently settles permanently in the closest communes, that is: Lubicz, Łysomice, Zławieś Wielka, Wielka Nieszawka and in communes somewhat distant away from Toruń: Chełmża, Kowalewo and Golub-Dobrzyń. Some 40% of migration influx to Toruń comes from neighbouring provinces, 35% from former Toruń Province and 25% from other areas of Poland. In the years 1990--1997 the share of communes surrounding Toruń has reached 37,8% and in the total emigration as much as 43,8% (fig. 3,4). Summing things up, one should state, that in the migration turnover to and from large towns, the role of local (neighbouring communes) and regional turnover increase, while the share of national turnover decreases. It results from above, that within the limits of large towns and urban agglornera- tions of Kujawsko-Pomorskie Province (Bydgoszcz, Toruń, Włocławek), in their direct zones, since the beginning of 90's one can observe the forming of suburbium. It mani- fests itself in through the intensification of processes of moving population from these towns to their peripheries, what can prove the sub-urbanization phenomenon and the development of their suburban zones. It is enough to mention that for example in Białe Błota commune, which directly borders on Bydgoszcz, from the end of 80's till now, one can observe the intensive influx, housing and industrial construction, as well as forming new economic entities, which offer new workplaces, not only for local population, but also for those coming from outside, in this number from Bydgoszcz and Inowrocław. The similar process can be seen from the beginning of 90's in communes situated in the vicinity of Toruń (Wielka Nieszawka, Lubicz, and so on). Tendency observed refers to Zelinsky's fourth phase of transformation of spatial mobility (Zelinsky, 1971, p. 230-231; Jerczyński, 1998, p. 36-38), which means an increased social mobility (both permanent and temporary migrations), intensive move- ments of population between towns and within individual urban agglomerations.
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