„Buddyzm krytyczny” w wymiarze społecznym, filozoficznym i metodologicznym II
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In second part of the article the doctrinal aspect of Critical Buddhism is further elaborated upon, and the notion of Buddha-nature becomes the main topic. To balance the critique of Shirō Matsumoto, selected apologies of the Buddha-nature concept are presented. According to these, foxing is considered not as incompatible with emptiness (śūnyatā) and with the law of conditioned arising, but as a positive expression of both. At the same time it is shown as a powerful, expedient means (upāya), which can help overcome the nihilistic interpretations of śūnyatā, and should be seen as expanding the prajñāpāramitā teachings. An interpretation of the Tibetan master Rgyal tshab rje follows in a similar vein, clarifying that Buddha-nature is not an substantial entity, but a ‚germ of enlightenment’ whose nature is śūnyatā. Next, the stance of a Chinese treatise, Foxing lun, is taken into consideration. This treatise establishes Buddha-nature as an upāya in accord with conditioned arising, and as a non-substantial potential for awakening. It also adds an epistemic dimension to the discourse, stating that foxing is a mode of proper cognition, i.e. having Buddha-nature means seeing reality as-it-is (tathatā). Last but not least, the methodological aspect of Critical Buddhism is given a critical valuation. The movement is acknowledged for raising sensitive and un-debated issues in the field where religion and social practice meet, but it is also seen as too radical and authoritarian with its urge to establish a 'true' Buddhism by stripping it down to a handful of 'orthodox' concepts. As a conclusion, it is said that the biggest shortcoming of Critical Buddhism lies in blaming the social injustice entirely on the doctrine, and not on its social implementation.
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