Obwód Kaliningradzki wobec przemian w Europie Bałtyckiej
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Kaliningrad - a Russian enclave located on the Baltic Sea, neighbouring with Poland and Lithuania, is a worldwide political and legal oddity. The position of Kaliningrad is unique historically, economically and geopolitically. The region has a status of a f r e e economic zone and since 1996 of a special economic zone Economic problems appearing after dispersion of the USSR specifically affected an economic collapse of the enclave. The district of Kaliningrad belongs to the most militarised regions of Russia. Russian generals stress that the military and strategic role of the Kaliningrad district is much more important for Russia than its economic meaning. The shift of NATO eastwards and accession to the European Union of the countries f r om the close neighbourhood of Kaliningrad not only will not sharpen sufficiently complicated inner problems of the district, but they will allow the region to get softly into 'the situation of new Europe' without secession from Russia. According to the Governor L. Gorbenko, there are justified grounds to call Kaliningrad the Russian gate to Europe. As whole Russia will not be able to join the European community, so, according to A. Tuczyński, it can afford to create such a legal system and such conditions to make Kaliningrad (as an inseparable part of Russia) able to j o in it. Yet guarantees by Moscow are indispensable here. Whereas in Moscow Kaliningrad is perceived as a region of a future economic growth. According to evaluations by Scandinavian and German political scientists, the enlargement of NATO and the European Union eastwards will positively affect the district of Kaliningrad in a longer run. Searches how to solve the problem of the Russian enclave should be still carried out especially in Russia itself and in the District of Kaliningrad. Warsaw, Berlin, Stockholm and the European Union in their policies towards Kaliningrad adhere to the principles of inviolability of borders, disarmament and economic growth. Only 'europeisation' i.e. inclusion into European economic and cultural structures, and according to J. Zaleski - 'baltication' of Kaliningrad is the only wise solution. This opinion is also shared by the author of the paper. Russia, which so far has not officially shown such a readiness, may become convinced, by means of diplomatic negotiations, to recognise the only reason for the further fate of the enclave and make it the Russian region within the European Union. Despite signing the agreement between NATO and Russia, the road from resignation from confrontation to a universe cooperation with the North Atlantic Treaty will be very long. Only economically strong and integrated Baltic Europe has an opportunity to be present on the map of united Europe in the 21st century.
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