Morska współpraca transgraniczna na wybranych przykładach z regionu Morza Bałtyckiego
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„Transborder sea region" constitutes a complex of most frequently two fragments of the socio-economic space neighbouring across the sea, having certain common or supplementing features. Its structure has a bicentric character. In the settling network, it is dominated by two complexes of ports and towns located opposite each other on both coasts of the sea. Regions having maritime borders are located on both internal and external borders of the European Union. A large part of the Baltic border regions is of peripheral character in relation to the national economic centres. The transborder option (towards the sea) began to develop only at the threshold of the third millennium, and it aims at transforming the status of two peripheries located on the opposite coasts of the sea into one integrated, bicentric maritime unit. It may make use of all assistance means that have appeared in Europe during the several recent years. Despite substantial diversity, it is possible to distinguish several common problems and questions for border regions of that type. They are concentrated on the common sea border, include solving communication problems between regions and accessibility to the transborder region, and wider markets that used to be limited by the natural spatial barrier constituted by the sea. The co-operation is also focused on common problems connected with protection of the sea environment, sea tourism, protection of the coastal line,use of sea resources (renewable sources of energy) and safety on the sea, cooperation of rescue services, etc. Moreover, common historic and cultural links and commercial traditions often feature the regions having sea borders. In Baltic Europe the regions that are the most involved into developing the transborder maritime co-operation include: - Storstrøm (Denmark) - Ostholstein (Germany). In 1998, the co-operation area was extended by the STRING project (South-Western Baltic Sea Transregional Area - Inventing New Geography) and it covers Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein, Storstrøm, Western Zealand, Copenhagen, and Skania. - Øresund (Denmark - Sweden), - Archipelago Cooperation (Sweden/Finland), - Kvarken MittSkandia (Finland/Sweden), - Southern Finland - Estonia, - Bornholm - South-Eastern Skania (Denmark/Sweden), - Fyn - KERN (Denmark/Germany), - Baltic Sea Island (B7), - Euroregion Baltic, - Euroregion Pomerania. The factor that joins the community of Baltic Europe, from the viewpoint of civilisation and culture, is the maritime tradition that consolidates consciousness of common fate and interests and teaches the mutual respect for linguistic, cultural and religious separateness. The sea regions of transborder co-operation, being shaped contemporarily, constitute one of the essential elements on this way. They are a starting point for further decisions and actions leading to the full Baltic integration. The European Union and the Council of Europe have clearly stressed since the mid-1990s that the Baltic region is important for the European integration and have shown a great interest in development of co-operation of the countries around the sea. The idea referred to as "The Baltic Sea as the Mediterranean Sea of the North"5 is strongly supported by the Baltic states that belong to the EU. Its purpose is reinforcement of the Baltic "component" in Europe by means of elaborating a separate policy towards the region and by assistance programmes of the EU. The shaped Baltic Europe may shift in the future the European centre of gravity from the Atlantic zone and partially the Mediterranean zone in the north-eastern direction that may become an important region on the map of the United Europe.
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