Dostępność komunikacyjna ośrodków władzy wojewódzkiej
Wendt, Jan A.
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Introduction of a new administrative and local government division of the country in 1999 started a process of shaping new government centres at the regional level of provinces (voivodeships) and at the local level of districts (powiaty). Admittedly, the reform of administration had assumed making the government closer to a citizen, districts were granted many earlier powers of provincial offices that were assigned a different range of powers. Yet, according to the statute on reform of administration, there is a possibility to appeal to proper provincial authorities from decisions of district government. In the same structure there are still many state bodies that predominate over the fate of an individual citizen. The most important, from the viewpoint of a citizen, medical and educational services and thejudiciary are located in the provincial centres that, through decision and appeal process, have become government centres for a citizen. That is why it seems important to specify communicational accessibility to centres of provincial government for an average citizen, as in Poland the presence of a petitioner is an important factor in the process of taking decisions. When specifying communicational accessibility it has been assumed that the object of the research will be accession to provincial institutions and authorities, defined as accessibility to the provincial capital. To measure accessibility to the government I have considered the existing railway links between districts and the seat of the provincial governor. The communicational accessibility of railways is important in so much that PKP (Polskie Koleje Państwowe - Polish State Railways), despite a high development of car transport is still the basic transport means for a significant number of citizens. Among the examined factors affecting communicational accessibility to provincial centres I have analysed differentiation of density of railway network, an average time of travel by passenger and fast trains within a province, kinds of railway connections according to types of trains stopping at individual stations and the number of districts bereft of railway connection with the provincial capital. With the above research assumptions I have determined the size and degree of differentiation for communicational accessibility of district inhabitants to centres of provincial government. It results from the analysis that contrary to the idea of introduction of self-government reform, the poorest inhabitants of numerous districts in Poland will be bereft of possibility to make use of many medical and educational services. The division between the authority and the population, which exists in the society, will deepen. Along with reduction of potential possibility to get from a district town to the government centre in the provincial capital, there will be a reduction in participation of some electorate in the civic community.
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