Akt estetyczny w ujęciu Jacques’a Lacana i Julii Kristevej
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Jacques Lacan developed his theory of the subject on the basis of the interpretation of trans-cendental philosophy by Immanuel Kant. Within the framework of this interpretation he pla-ced gender and sexual difference: the subject is thought to be male, while woman remains an outsider excluded from the culture. Woman functions as a men’s phantasm or as a noume-non. I prove that Lacan started to move beoyond Kantian transcendentalism by repeating the thesis fundamental to this philosophy. That is to say, in the place of female subject Lacan introduced the dialectic of the ontological difference between phenomena and noumena, by creating the terminological synonym of Ding an sich: La Chose maternelle and its sublime delusive side, objet petit a. Next, I present the melancholic constitution of the Western subject through the analysis of Kant’s philosophy. I also point out the work of melancholy in the for-mulation of an aesthetic act by Julia Kristeva. Finally, I examine the cultural shifts that are depicted in Kristeva’s theory and confront her cultural model with the contemporary situation of women and the postmodern changes in art and culture.
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