Pielgrzymowanie i turystyka religijna na przykładzie ośrodków pielgrzymkowych w diecezji krakowskiej
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Even though we live in a more and more secularized world, in which a sense of emotional lostness and emptiness is deepening, a steady increase in the number of travels characterized by religious and religious-cognitive motives has been observed for many years. In recent years, over twelve million people annually have taken part in pilgrimages to main pilgrimage sites in Poland (both of international and domestic eminence). Also, a surge in pilgrimages to sanctuaries of at least diocesian (regional) importance is noticed every year. Religious tourism is winning more and more devotees, too. At present, there are around 800 pilgrimage sites in Poland, predominantly connected with the Roman Caholic Church. Among them, there definitely prevail Marian pilgrimage sites (around 550 sanctuaries – 70 per cent of the total number), over 220 of which possess images of Virgin Mary, crowned in compliance with papal law. As for sanctuaries of Jesus Christ, in the Polish professional literature called sanctuaries of Our Lord, there are 93 of them, which constitutes 12 percent of the total number. The remaining 150 pilgrimage sites are connected with the special worship of saints or blessed. Against the background of the spatial location of Polish pilgrimage sites, the territory of the Archdiocese of Kraków is particularly distinctive. At present, within its boundaries there function over 70 shrines (i.e. around 10 percent of the total number of Polish pilgrimage shrines). These are sites mostly connected with the Catholic Church, predominantly Marian ones. The shrines of international eminence are the Sanctuary of Christ’s Passion and Our La-dy of Kalwaria in Kalwaria Zebrzydowska, the Sanctuary of Divine Mercy in Kraków-Łagiewniki, and Wadowice, where the worship of Servant of God John Paul II is flourishing. In recent years, these three pilgrimage sites put together have been visited by over four million of people annually. Within the boundaries of the Archdiocese of Kraków there also functions the largest and the most widely known Polish sanctuary of Our Lady of Fatima, located in Zakopane-Krzeptówki. Included in the number of sanctuaries of supraregional (supradiocesian) eminence are the Sanctuary of the Holy Cross in Kraków-Mogiła – the most important place of worship of Our Crucified Lord – and the Sanctuary of Christ Suffering in Alwernia. Of immense importance, not only to the inhabitants of Podhale, are Marian shrines in Ludźmierz, Zakopane-Olcza, Bachledówka and on Wiktorówki (Rusinowa Polana). An exceptional place in the Archdiocese belongs to the capital of the metropoly – to Kraków with its over 35 registered pilgrimage sites. In most cases, these are sanctuaries of saints and blessed, and also Marian shrines with crowned images of Virgin Mary. What is significant, foreigners account for 20 per cent of the pilgrims visiting Kraków sanctuaries (mainly the Sanctuary of Divine Mercy). The study outlines forms and scale of the pilgrimage movement related to pilgrimage sites in the Archdiocese of Kraków in the last decade. The spatial range of a sanctuary’s influ-ence and intensification of the pilgrimage movement in the space of the year have also been analysed in relation to selected pilgrimage sites.
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