Research on energy consumption by an electric automotive vehicle
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In recent years, dynamic development of electric drives in automotive applications has taken place. This has chiefly been driven by ecological considerations, in particular pollutant and noise emissions and the depletion of the natural resources necessary for the production of liquid and gaseous fuels. For the energy characteristics of electric automotive vehicles to be assessed, the energy consumption by such vehicles must be tested in conditions corresponding to the actual operation conditions. In this paper, formal description of energy and economic characteristics of electric automotive vehicles has been proposed. The notions of efficiency of vehicle drive, efficiency of battery charging, efficiency of braking energy recuperation, total efficiency, and distance energy consumption by vehicles without and with braking energy recuperation have been introduced. Results of testing a Zilent Courant electric passenger car in conditions simulating the urban operation of such a vehicle have been presented. The Zilent Courant car has no braking energy recuperation system. The tests were carried out on a chassis dynamometer according to the procedures defined as UDC (Urban Driving Cycle), FTP 75 (Federal Transient Procedure), and Stop-and-Go test procedure intended to simulate the street jam traffic type. The average distance energy consumption and total vehicle efficiency was determined in the tests. The distance energy consumption was also tested in selected dynamic conditions of vehicle operation: the average values of distance energy consumption at positive and negative vehicle acceleration were determined.
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