The Vistula Canal, the state after 120 years of activity
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During the catastrophic flood caused by the ice dam in 1840, a new river mouth was created. Nevertheless some series of floods were observed in the next years. In order to facilitate of river waters run-off, the artificial crosscut was performed in 1891-1895 years. The artificial channel was opened in 31st of March 1895. Since, at the time of continuous exploitation of the channel, high effectiveness of the engineering project which is unique in the world scale has been confirmed. A permanent flood hazard for Gdansk city and adjacent lowland areas has been receded. Since this time, the external delta is being formed by acumulation of bed-loaded sediment that is transporting by the river. Consequently free run-off of the river water is reducing due to the external delta growing. During the years 2009-2014, detailed monitoring researches of the Vistula Canal as well as the Vistula River External Delta have been performed. The obtained results constitute a basis for the evaluation of flood risk in the area, as well as for prognosis of morphological changes of the Vistula River External Delta and sand supply to the Gulf of Gdansk. The state of the Vistula River mouth canal is briefly presented after 120 years of its history.
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