Báthory István király alakja a 16.–17. századi lengyel királykatalógusokban
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The study analyses the appearance of Stephen Báthory, king of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (1576–1586) in popular historiographic genre of so-called kings’ catalogues (icones, imagines). This kind of historical works gained extensive popularity in early modern Europe, in Poland-Lithuania from the mid-16th century even until the end of 18th century. An analyse of several texts (from late 16th c. up to 1660s) allowes to draw an outline of Báthory’s commemoration at the most widespread level. The authors focused on his military successes in wars against Muscovy and Gdańsk, which was apparently influenced by context of permanent wars led by Polish-Lithuanian state in 17th century and can be also considered as a part of broader development of the rulers’ ideology in that time (victorious knight-king). Another characteristic events mentioned in popular historiography were: establishment of main court for nobility (Trybunał), supporting the Catholic Church in recaptured Livonia. Báthory’s international respect and strategic skills contributed to a view of warrior king and his glorious, but short governance. Among intellectual and spiritual advantages the authors stressed a perfect knowledge of Latin language. Together with rulers’ virtues the catalogues presented also his external features, remembering him as a tall, black-haired, white-teeth and hansdome man as well as emphasizing his similarity to images of Attila. This fix set of virtues was only slightly modified in next publications and basically remained the same in the whole period. Almost none of catalogues recalls negative remarks concerning Báthory’s reign, only one of them briefly reminds of internal political conflict with powerful Zborowski family, so controversial in the 1580s and blames the king for dying without confession. Explanation of the phenomenon of so positive remembrance were the numerous panegyric writings and historiography, which praised Báthory and due to his propaganda skills predominated already under his rule and then established a base for more simplified historical literature and iconography. That contributed in decisive way to the development of Báthorys’ image in modern historiography and popular opinion. It was primary nostalgic, but contained also some normative features.
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