Losy chłopskiej rodziny Lipów ze Śląska Cieszyńskiego do 1918 roku i jej droga do polskiej narodowości
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The Lipa family was a catholic peasant family from Cieszyn, Silesia. Its progenitor was Grzegorz Lipa (d. 1738), the owner of the land in Kalembice near Cieszyn. The later owners of this land were his son Jan (d. 1743/1745), his grandson Jakub (d. after 1771) and his great-grandson Adam (1767-1835), who was also a village leader (wójt) of Kalembice. Adam (1802-1882), the son of Adam, settled down in Bobrek. His sons, despite different lifestyles, identified themselves with Polish culture. Paweł (1846-1917) spent most of his life outside his country. He was a Major General in the Austro-Hungarian Army. However, he was not ashamed of his roots and spoke good Polish. After retirement he settled down in Cieszyn. Franciszek (1848-1936) lived in Bobrek near Cieszyn. He was a Polish social and national activist, and a member of Polish organisations: the Duchy of Cieszyn Motherland Schools (Macierz Szkolna Księstwa Cieszyńskiego) and the Union of Silesian Catholics (Związek Śląskich Katolików). By defending their language identities they became members of community whose history is connected not with the Duchy of Cieszyn but with neighbouring country, the Polish-Lithunian Commonwealth.
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